CompositionCalcitriol (0.25mcg),Elemental Calcium (200mcg),Elemental Zinc (#N/A),Vitamin K (50mcg) SALT INFORMATIONCalcitriol (0.25mcg) TYPICAL USAGE Managing hypocalcemia in patients undergoing dialysia for chronic renal failure. Renal osteodystrophy. Hypocalaemia and Hyperphosphataemia. Vitamin D dependent rickets, renal tubular osteomalacia. SIDE EFFECTS Nausea, stomach upset, skin rash, acute toxicity. DRUG INTERACTION Hypermagnesaemia may develop in patients on chronic renal dialysis. Hypercalcaemia in patients on digitalis may precipitate cardiac arrhythmias. MECHANISM OF ACTION Calcitriol promotes calcium absorption in the intestines and retention at the kidneys thus increasing serum calcium levels. It also increases renal tubule phosphate resorption consequently decreasing serum phosphatase levels, PTH levels and bone resorption. Elemental Calcium (200mcg) TYPICAL USAGE Acute hypocalcaemia, hyperphosphataemia, hypocalcaemia, in hypocalcaemic tetany, osteoporosis prophylaxis, osteoporosis, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, severe hyperkalaemia. SIDE EFFECTS Hypotension, sinus bradycardia, cardiac arrest, thirst, headache, nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation, abdominal pain, dry mouth, syncope, hypophosphatemia. DRUG INTERACTION Calcium is known to interact with other drugs like alendronate (Na), calciferol, digitoxin, digoxin, etidronate (disodium), fluoride, iron salts, risedronate (Na), sodium fluoride, strontium ranelate, tetracycline (HCl), verapamil (HCl). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required. MECHANISM OF ACTION The skeleton acts as a major mineral storage site for the element and releases Ca2+ ions into the bloodstream under controlled conditions. Circulating calcium is either in the free, ionized form or bound to blood proteins such as serum albumin. Parathyroid hormone (secreted from the parathyroid gland) regulates the resorption of Ca2+ from bone. Calcitonin stimulates incorporation of calcium in bone, although this process is largely independent of calcitonin. The best-absorbed form of calcium from a pill is a calcium salt like carbonate or phosphate. Calcium gluconate and calcium lactate are absorbed well by pregnant women. Seniors absorb calcium lactate, gluconate and citrate better unless they take their calcium supplement with a full breakfast. Elemental Zinc (#N/A) TYPICAL USAGE Zinc is used for treatment and prevention of zinc deficiency and its consequences, including stunted growth and acute diarrhea in children, and slow wound healing. It is also used for boosting the immune system, treating the common cold and recurrent ear infections, and preventing lower respiratory infections. It is also used for malaria and other diseases caused by parasites. Zinc is also used for an eye disease called macular degeneration, for night blindness, and for cataracts. It is also used for asthma; diabetes; high blood pressure; acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); and skin conditions such as psoriasis, eczema, and acne. SIDE EFFECTS Taking high amounts of zinc is likely unsafe. High doses above the recommended amounts might cause fever, coughing, stomach pain, fatigue, and many other problems. DRUG INTERACTION Tell your doctor of all prescription and nonprescription medication you may use. Do not start or stop any medicine without doctor or pharmacist approval. MECHANISM OF ACTION Zinc is needed for the proper growth and maintenance of the human body. It is found in several systems and biological reactions, and it is needed for immune function, wound healing, blood clotting, thyroid function. Zinc plays a key role in maintaining vision, and it is present in high concentrations in the eye. Zinc deficiency can alter vision, and severe deficiency can cause changes in the retina (the back of the eye where an image is focused). Vitamin K (50mcg) TYPICAL USAGE Haemorrhage, over dosage of anticoagulants, vitamin deficiency. SIDE EFFECTS Bronchospasm, sweating, flushing, hematoma, chest tightness, anaphylactic reactions. DRUG INTERACTION Vitamin K is known to interact with other drugs like cholestyramine, colestipol (HCl), nicoumalone, oxytetracycline (Dihydrate), phenindione, phenobarbitone, phenytoin (Na), tocopherol (Vitamin E), warfarin (Na). Always consult your physician for the change of dose regimen or an alternative drug of choice that may strictly be required. MECHANISM OF ACTION Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the gamma-carboxylase enzymes which catalyze the posttranslational gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in inactive hepatic precursors of coagulation factors II (prothrombin), VII, IX and X. Gamma-carboxylation converts these inactive precursors into active coagulation factors which are secreted by hepatocytes into the blood.